On 12 January 2023 the Regulation (EU) 2022/2560 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 December 2022 on foreign subsidies distorting the internal market (hereinafter: the “FSR Regulation”) has entered into force.
The FSR Regulation, which will apply from 12 July 2023, equips the European Commission (hereinafter: the “Commission”) with new tools preventing distortion in competition of the internal (EU) market resulting from “foreign subsidies” meaning subsidies granted by the non-EU states to the entities operating on the internal market.
With a judgment from 2019, the ECJ had clearly set the direction: From the Working Hours Directive in conjunction with Art. 31 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (CFR), there is the obligation of the Member States to ensure that employers introduce an “objective, reliable and accessible system that can be used to measure the daily working hours worked by employees”; this follows from the right of employees to effective health protection and compliance with the legally prescribed (weekly and daily) maximum working hours. However, the ECJ had not set a specific deadline for the Member States.
Over three full years, the requirements of the ECJ then remained without any significant practical consequences, with a few exceptions that we will present below on a country-specific basis. And it was probably generally assumed that legislative intervention would be required for the practical implementation of the judgment. However, the German Federal Labour Court has now taken the ball directly and formulated directly from existing law specific obligations incumbent on the employer even without legislative measures.
The applicable e-commerce policy is over 20 years old. That is why the European Union launched a regulatory package for online platforms a few years ago.
Working from home, New Work, flexibility, self-organisation, trust-based working hours. These (and other) terms describe what is no longer a vision of the future or a mere phenomenon. Day-to-day working life has fundamentally changed in the last two and a half years at the latest since the start of the coronavirus pandemic, which acted as a catalyst in this respect.
The development and commercialisation of drones is making relentless progress. Due to the wide range of applications and the rapid technical advances, unmanned aircraft – or “UAS” (=Unmanned Aircraft System) for short – are predicted to be a promising future.
Under Turkish law, the employer is obliged to record and document the daily working hours of the employees with the help of suitable means. However, it was not determined by law exactly how the recording of working hours must be carried out. As mentioned, recording and documentation with the help of suitable means is sufficient.
In case of a hacking attack, unauthorised attackers attempt to access external PCs, notebooks, smartphones, tablets or even entire corporate networks. Since the frequency of such attacks has increased massively in Europe over the past year, in this article we look at the successful hacker attack from the outside, which encrypts the affected systems in such a way that the company can no longer access its system at all.
The European Commission’s Vertical Block Exemption Regulation (“VBER”), which was previously potentially applicable to distribution, whereby agreements between manufacturers or suppliers and retailers are exempt from the ban on cartels, ceased to be in force on 31/05/2022, because the original period of validity of 12 years was reached.
These new versions bring some changes which relax requirements compared to the previous legal situation, but also tighten requirements, which primarily take into account the area of tension between online/offline sales.
Cryptocurrency, big data, artificial intelligence, data theft, cloud, virtual, augmented, or mixed reality, cyber warfare, telemedicine, social media, autonomous driving, Industry 4.0, Criminal Law 4.0, NFTs – these are not the only issues that are bringing about the era of the fourth so-called digital revolution. Each of these digital changes is bringing new challenges to all facets of society – the link between law and technology is one of the biggest. An example that illustrates the special relationship between legal and digital technologies very well are NFTs (non-fungible tokens).
The "current turning point" in connection with the Russian war of aggression on Ukraine has not only a political but also perhaps an even greater economic dimension. The sharp rise in the price of raw materials and energy has led to a dramatic increase in costs for companies. The interruption of supply chains often causes production downtimes in industry. Despite all the harmonisation of laws that has taken place in the last 20 to 30 years, especially in the European legal sphere, this issue has remained untouched by efforts at legal standardisation. The reason for this was apparently a lack of topicality. Therefore, with this article, we provide an overview of how this topic is handled legally with regard to three key questions in the respective countries of our partner law firms.
The legislation relating to drones in Turkey is the Civil Aviation Act and the Unmanned Aviation Communique. Commercial drone use is permitted within Turkey; however, since 01.08.2016, commercial drones may only be flown by specially trained remote pilots.
Already in 2020, the European Commission presented the draft for a new EU regulation on a single market for digital services, through which the latest developments in the field of digital services are to be incorporated and regulated at EU level. The proposal aims at better protection of consumer rights in the digital environment and at the joint internal market-related enforcement potential of the EU Member States.
The Turkish Code of Obligations provides, for example, in the case of production of work for a lump sum, that the adjustment of the contract can be demanded or withdrawal from the contract is possible if the production of the work for the lump sum becomes unreasonable due to circumstances which were not foreseeable at the time of conclusion of the contract or which were foreseeable but were not taken into account by the contracting parties.
The Paris Agreement is an international agreement that was signed in 2015 and entered into force in 2016 within the scope of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to prevent the climate crisis. The agreement aims to limit the global average temperature increase to 2 degrees Celsius, if possible, to keep it below 1.5 degrees. It is thought that limiting the temperature increase in this way will reduce the risks of climate change.
Information technologies and the Internet, which entered our lives rapidly towards the end of the last century and continue to develop at the same pace, find a place for themselves in every aspect of daily life today. Although the informatics world has made human life extremely easy with innovations, our personal data have also been transferred to the cyber environment as a result of this situation. The fact that the information systems contain such a large data pool and the ability to hide identity have paved the way for the increase of actions that will cause illegal results. As a result of the increase in these actions, the concept of "cybercrime" has come into our lives and the necessity to make regulations in this field with both domestic laws and international conventions has emerged in order to protect the victims of these crimes.
With the Covid-19 outbreak, rapid developments were occured in the transition to electronic hearing within the scope of the measures taken in courthouses. The e-Hearing system, which was developed by the Ministry of Justice and provides the opportunity to participate in the hearings with video conferencing, was a big step in terms of reducing the judicial costs as well as protecting the parties from coronavirus.
IraSME, a network of funding programmes
from different countries supporting SMEs research and development projects, announced that 31 March 2021 is the deadline of application for 27th IraSME Call for transnational R&D projects. In this brochure, we will try to explain the details of 27th IraSME Call for Proposals.
State aid is granted on the basis of various criteria. The region or the economic sector in which the investment is made is decisive, but also the strategic importance of the investment and the level of the investment volume. Investments in structurally weak regions receive higher subsidies than investments in industrial areas. For the award of grants, a distinction is made between six different regions.
Justified by the goal of solving legal disputes in a fast and economical manner without filing lawsuits and thus relieving the overloaded Turkish courts, a mediation procedure is implemented as a mandatory pre-condition for filing a lawsuit according to Turkish labour and commercial law.
The presidential decree no. 32 issued on 12/09/2018 to protect the value of the Turkish cur-rency ("Decree") sets the limitation of foreign currency and foreign currency indexed contracts and stipulates that these contracts must be converted within 30 days into Turkish Lira (“TL”).